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About Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library

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Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library covers the major strains and new directions in religious questioning that have often altered the very framework of given traditions. In addition to studying scholars' ideas separately, researchers can explore broader schools of thought to examine how different theories, denominations, faiths, and political and cultural groups have intersected, differed, and influenced one another.

The collection will reflect the increasingly global and pluralistic character of religious scholarship by including voices from other religions including Judaism and Buddhism that have generated meaningful interfaith dialogue. It also incorporates works from members of previously marginalized groups, among them key feminist theologians and scholars.

Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library brings together in one cross-searchable database volume I on Christianity, volume II on Islam, volume III on Judaism and the Digital Karl Barth Library. It currently includes 266,000 pages, comprising 608 books, 3,022 items from the Reinhold Niebuhr Papers, and 8,292 items from the Markus Brann Archive.

About Volume 1

Twentieth Century Religious Thought: Volume I, Christianity currently includes 119,109 pages, comprising 333 books and 3,022 items from the Reinhold Niebuhr Papers. Digital Karl Barth Library adds an additional 91 sources, 46,974 pages.

Volume I on Christianity currently features more than 50 authors from Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, and North America, including:

  • Donald Bloesch
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  • Leonardo Boff
  • Sergius Bulgakov
  • Rudolf Bultmann
  • Helder Camara
  • Mary Daly
  • Ivone Gebara
  • Henri de Lubac
  • Gustavo Gutièrrez
  • Stanley Hauerwas
  • Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz
  • Bernard Lonergan
  • Dmitry Sergeyeyevic Merezhkovsky
  • John Milbank
  • Jurgen Moltmann
  • Mercy Amba Oduyoye
  • Wolfhart Pannenberg
  • Pope Benedict XVI
  • Rosemary Radford Ruether
  • Albert Schweitzer
  • Jon Sobrino
  • Dorothee Sölle
  • Ernst Troeltsch
  • Hans Urs von Balthasar
  • Adolf von Harnack
  • Rowan Williams
  • John Howard Yoder

Once completed, Volume I will provide extensive coverage of such topics as:

  • Protestantism
  • Catholicism
  • Evangelicalism
  • Lutheranism
  • Liberation theology
  • Systematic theology
  • Dialectical theology
  • Theocentric theology
  • Death of god theology
  • Feminist theology
  • Animal rights
  • Christian atheism

Volume I will grow to include 150,000 pages of scholarship from influential theologians in the Christian tradition—roughly 125,000 pages of published writings, along with complementary archival resources. Future releases for Volume I will provide more works from the key 20th century thinkers and content in original languages other than English and German, including French and Spanish.

About Volume II

Twentieth Century Religious Thought: Volume II, Islam currently includes 55,000 pages, comprising 195 books.

It is a scholarly, highly curated collection of key primary and secondary texts including foundational writings and contextual monographs:

  • From the late 19th century through the 21st century
  • 95% of authors Muslims, Western and non-Western

About 95% of the collection’s key thinkers and authors are Muslims, both Western and non-Western. Volume II currently features more than 200 contributors from Egypt, Gambia, India, Iraq, Iran, Morocco, Pakistan, Syria, Tanzania, and Turkey, representing a wide range of Islamic thought. Included are international selections of English, Arabic, and French editions of the writings of important figures such as:

  • Sadiq Jalal Al-Azm
  • Chandra Muzaffar
  • Abdullahi Ahmed An-Naʿim
  • Mahmoud Ayoub
  • Said Nursî
  • Asma Barlaf
  • Tariq Ramadan
  • Nimat Hafez Barazangi
  • Fazlur Raman
  • Farid Esack
  • Rashid Rida
  • Khaled Abou el Fadl
  • Abdolkarim Soroush
  • Fethullah Gülen
  • Rifā‘ah Rāfiʿ Țahțāwī
  • Sayyid Ahmad Khan
  • Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri
  • Hans Küng
  • Amina Wadud

It includes coverage of key themes such as:

  • The State
  • Women and Islam
  • Tradition and Renewal
  • Text and reason
  • Quran and Hadith
  • Islamic Law and Legal Reforms
  • Islam and the West
  • Piety movements
  • Political Islam
  • Salafi Thought

Volume II will grow to include 100,000 pages of scholarship from influential theologians in the Islamic tradition. Future releases will provide more works from the key 20th century thinkers and more content in Arabic.

About Volume III

Twentieth Century Religious Thought: volume III, Judaism currently includes 45,910 pages, comprising 100 books and 8,292 items from the Markus Brann Archive.

It is a scholarly, highly curated collection of key primary and secondary texts including foundational writings and contextual monographs from the late 19th century through the 21st century.

It currently features authors from the United States, Europe, and Israel, including:

  • Eugene Borowitz
  • Markus Brann
  • Blu Greenberg
  • David Hartman
  • Adolf Neubauer
  • Jacob Neusner
  • Ira F. Stone
  • Hava Tirosh-Samuelson
  • Joseph Soloveitcjick

It includes coverage of key themes such as:

  • Jewish Mysticism
  • Rabinic Judaism
  • Orthodox Judaism
  • Conservative Judaism
  • Reform Judaism
  • Midrash
  • Talmud
  • Jewish Law and Ethics
  • Holocaust Studies
  • Kabbalah
  • Jewish Identity
  • Zionism

The collection incorporates content from the field's leading partners including Baylor University Press, Indiana University Press, Jewish Publications Society, National Library of Israel, Princeton University Press, Wipf & Stock.

Future releases will provide more works from the key 20th century thinkers and more content in Hebrew. Upon completion, it will include 100,000 pages, more than 150 authors, and approximately 200 works.

Editorial Board and Partners

An editorial board advises on the selection of materials. Experts currently include:

Michael S. Berger,
Associate Professor
Department of Religion
Emory University

Diane Apostolos-Cappadona,
Christian studies professor at
Georgetown University

Yvonne Haddad, Professor of the History
of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations
at the Center for Muslim-Christian
Understanding at Georgetown University

Zayn Kassam, John Knox
McLean Professor of Religious
Studies, Pomona College

Samir Mamoud, Lecturer, American University of Beirut

Rosemary Radford Ruether, Professor of Feminist Theology at Claremont School of Theology and Claremont Graduate University

David L. Stubbs, Professor of Ethics and Theology at Western Theological Seminary

David Thomas, professor of Christianity and Islam/Nadir Dinshaw professor of Inter Religious Relations at University
of Birmingham

Zuleika Rodgers
Lecturer in Jewish Studies
Trinity College Dublin
The University of Dublin

About the Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library

Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library is a four-volume series that will include Volume I: Christianity, Volume II: Islam; Volume III: Judaism; and Volume IV: Eastern Religions.

Developed under the guidance of specialists in the field, the series will provide a comprehensive and rare assemblage of important and unique materials, the essential works documenting religious thinking in the 20th century.

Key concepts and theories, such as ethics, truth, emptiness, doctrine, and reincarnation, will be explored and examined across religions, while specific dogmas and philosophies will also be studied in-depth. Students and scholars will experience the conversations within and among schools of thought through the key authors who have shaped the conversations and understandings.

Following the launch of Volume I: Christianity in 2013, Volume II: Islam in 2016, Volume III: Judaism in 2017, Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library will grow by 2018 to include:

Volume IV: Eastern Religions—100,000 pages of printed works and archival material documenting the key works and practices of these influential Eastern religions. Most titles will be in English, with selected titles in Mandarin, Tibetan, and Roman languages.

Once completed, the four volumes of Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library plus The Digital Karl Barth Library will constitute a major resource on all aspects of theological thought, dialogue, and experience across cultures, laying the foundation for historical and contemporary understandings.

Content suggestions

If you would like to recommend additional content for inclusion in the database, you can contact the editor at

Sensitivity Statement and Takedown Policy

Materials contained on the Alexander Street platform include historical content that may contain offensive language, negative stereotypes or inaccurate representations. Alexander Street does not endorse the views expressed in such materials, but believes they should be made available in context to enable scholarly comparison, analysis and research.

In making material available online, Alexander Street and our content partners act in good faith. To the best of our knowledge, content contained within these collections has been cleared for publication by the appropriate rights holders and has not been placed under any restrictions for privacy, cultural or other sensitivities. If you have found material for which you believe you hold the copyright without proper attribution, which contravenes privacy laws, or which is a breach of the protocols determining accession provision for heritage materials which reflect indigenous history, culture, language or perspective, please contact us in writing at Please include with your query:

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Alexander Street strives to provide the broadest possible online access to content where permissions have been granted by the known rights holders and/or the content holding institution. Permanent access restrictions will be considered only as an exceptional response.


Many individuals have contributed to this project since its inception and we want to acknowledge the great contributions of all.

Special thanks go to:

  • Aaron Wood
  • Abby Horowitz
  • Adam Buck
  • Andrea Eastman-Mullins
  • Charles Cooney
  • Dan Hamid
  • Fiona Carr
  • Gareth Bish
  • Graham Dimmock
  • Isabel Lacerda
  • Jessica Kemp
  • JiaJun Zhu
  • Julie Miller
  • Julie Stevens
  • Kathleen Saylor
  • Kimberly Milio
  • Lucy Sullivan
  • Margaret Loebe
  • Maria Stanton
  • Michelle Eldridge
  • Mike Kangal
  • Nathalie Duval
  • Pat Carlson
  • Paul Dixon
  • Phillip Kuna
  • Sergei Surba
  • Stephen Rhind-Tutt
  • Vada Komistra
  • Victoria Barnett
  • Will Whalen
  • Xiangkun Du