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Twentieth Century Religious Thought provides sophisticated searching and easy navigation across large numbers of primary-source documents.

Users who wish to get quick access to specific works should begin by familiarizing themselves with the various Browses available to them through the Navigation Bar. These browses include: all works, printed works, series, archival collections, authors, and subjects.

Users who wish to conduct in-depth searches, either of specific documents or of the entire database, should explore the capabilities available on the Advanced Search pages.

The navigation bar lets you move around the database retrieval tools, including the Browse, Advanced Search, and the What's New option. (The graphic below is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)

Browse: Allows users to find a particular title within All Works, Archival Works, or Printed Works. The user is also able to browse by author and subject.

Advanced Search: Advanced Search gives users the option to enter information into one or more of eleven available fields. The ability to take advantage of multiple fields simultaneously allows users to frame highly targeted and sophisticated search queries. See section three below for a description of each field.

What's New: Allows users to quickly see what new material has been added to the database.

Quick Search Box: Allows users to specify search criteria and to locate works that meet these criteria. Users can enter a keyword or phrase to quickly locate all occurrences of that keyword or phrase within the database.

The orange color indicates which search section you are currently using. As users move from section to section, the orange moves to indicate which tool you've selected. Users may click on the gray parts of the Navigation Bar to move to the appropriate tool.

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.

PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within a database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., XML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.

In addition to word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|"), a space for AND, and NOT within a variety of searching contexts.

Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Although such a high degree of indexing can lead to reduced speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.

For more information on PhiloLogic, contact the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago.

The browse function allows users to get a broad overview of the material available within the database, either by searching all works by title, or by narrowing their fields of browse.

When hovering over the Browse selection on the Search Navigation Bar, users will be presented with the opportunity to narrow their fields of browse by All Works, Series, Archival Collections, Authors, and Subjects.

Each browse result allows users to filter and organize their browse results alphabetically and chronologically by toggling arrows beside the column titles (i.e. Author, Publisher, etc.).

There are two basic kinds of advanced searches in the database:

Full-Text Searching: Full-Text Searching enables users to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.

Bibliographic Searching: Bibliographic searching involves the use of established descriptive fields such as title, date of publication, and document type.


Full-Text Searching enables users to locate specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves. The term(s) to be searched in selected documents is entered into the Keyword or Phrase box on the search form. Word searches in PhiloLogic are by default case insensitive, so that a search finds both lower and upper case representations of words. Wildcard characters may also be employed to match various forms of a given root or base. The simplest search in PhiloLogic is a single term search without wildcards. If searching for a term such as "Geist" in the database, simply type the entire word into the Keyword or Phrase box and press the SEARCH button.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

To access search tips while on the search page, click the question mark ("?") next to the search box to bring up search syntax details.

Wildcard characters allow the user to find many related forms of a single search entry. This is in contrast to a basic word search that requires an exact match in order to find a word. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection. The most commonly used wildcards are listed below.

. (period):

matches any single character except newline (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).

.* (period plus asterisk):

.* is an approximate "match anything" wildcard operator, rather than the more traditional (but less precise) * in many other search engines. This syntax is a change from the previous version of PhiloLogic.

.* indicates that the regular expression should match zero or more occurrences of the previous character or bracketed group.(e.g., cigar.* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).

this functionality can also be used at the beginning or middle of search terms: .* matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., .*habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).

.? (period question mark):

matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).

[a-z] (brackets):

matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).

E (capital letter):

matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search naïveté regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Parentheses, various brackets, and double quotes are not searchable characters and are word-breaking (e.g., to search vor[r]ia enter vor r ia.

Common mathematical symbols, such as the equal sign (=) and minus sign (-) will produce a "Nothing found" message. The plus sign (+) is not a searchable character, and, if entered, will be ignored.

  • The Boolean operators OR and NOT are available in full-text and bibliographic searching. To take advantage of these operators, simply enter OR or NOT in uppercase letters between the desired terms. In full-text searching the vertical bar serves as the OR operator (e.g., freedom|liberty retrieves instances of either word). NOT servers as the NOT operator (e.g., holy NOT ghost retrieves occurrences of "holy," but not when it occurs in the phrase "holy ghost").
  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieves all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching).
  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow* finds any of the three adjectives together with the nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural.

All punctuation should be stripped from word searches except for apostrophes. Apostrophes must be entered as characters.

  • Hyphens: Hyphens act as word separators and are not searchable characters. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).
  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them. In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore, contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.
  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

When searching German, French, and other languages that use diacritics, users should use the actual accented character for best results. Users can employ the capital-letter technique described in section 3.2.2 above to execute an accent-insensitive search.

Formatting (e.g., font shifts, superscript, subscript, italics, bold, underline, etc.) are ignored in a search (e.g., search 1st simply as 1st).

PhiloLogic offers four kinds of full-text searches: Single Term or Phrase Search, which is set up as the default, Phrase Within X Words, Phrase in Exactly X Words, and Proximity Search in the Same Sentence. One may select and de-select a search option by clicking on 'Within," "Exactly," or "In the same sentence".

Single Term or Phrase Search:

To search a single term or phrase in the entire database or a defined corpus, make sure that the Single Term or Phrase radio button is selected. Simply enter the term into the keyword or phrase box, and click the SEARCH button. Single Term searching supports wildcard characters and the Boolean OR operator. Entering, for example, spirit* retrieves all occurrences of spirit, spirits, spiritual, spirituality, &c.; while entering freedom OR liberty retrieves all occurrences of the word "freedom" or "liberty" in the entire database or a specified corpus. To search for an exact word-combination or phrase (e.g., holy ghost), simply enter the full phrase in the keyword or phrase box and click the SEARCH button. Phrase searching restricts the search to adjacent words in a particular order (punctuation in the text, except for apostrophes, should not be entered).

Phrase Within X Words:

If you are looking for a phrase that could have slight variations in wording (e.g., "mystery of his body" and "mystery of Christ's body"), or for multiple words in sequence that may be separated by intervening words, select the Phrase Within X Words option. Next, enter the maximum number of words that you wish to allow between the first specified keyword and the last specified keyword. Then enter two keywords from the phrase into the keyword or phrase box (e.g., mystery body). Note: For better performance it is a good idea to exclude very common words such as "of" in separated phrase searches.

Phrase in Exactly X Words:

If you are looking for a phrase with a specific run of words, use this option. Using the previous example, a search for "mystery" and "Christ" in exactly 3 words would yield "mystery of Christ's body" but not "mystery of the body of Christ."

Proximity Search in the Same Sentence:

Searching for more than one term in a single sentence without regard to adjacency or word-order constitutes searching In the same sentence. Simply type the desired words into the keyword or phrase box, indicate whether they are to be found in the same sentence by selecting the appropriate option, and click SEARCH. For example, if looking for occurrences of the words "church" and "state" within the same sentence in any order, simply enter church state into the keyword or phrase box and select the In the same sentence option. Proximity searching supports wildcard characters and the Boolean operator OR. Entering church state OR magistrate retrieves instances of "church" and "state" or "church" and "magistrate" in the same sentence or paragraph.

A Bibliographic Search is a selection of established search terms that allow users to search within carefully cataloged fields of metadata.
  • Keyword or Phrase
  • Title
  • Series
  • Author
  • Editor/Translator
  • Archive
  • Subject
  • Publisher
  • Language of Edition
  • Publication Year
  • Date Written

When selecting a Bibliographic Search Field, a user may either manually enter a term into the appropriate field, or he or she can choose from pre-determined terms by clicking on the grey 'terms' box.

Boolean searches are also available within the bibliographic search fields.

3.3.1 Keyword or Phrase
See section 3.2.1 above for a detailed discussion of keyword or phrase searching.

3.3.2 Title
Description: This field identifies the titles currently available in the database. For example, in Twentieth Century Religious Thought, Volume I: Christianity, includes the complete 17-volume German edition of Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke (DBW) and 18 volumes of the English edition of the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works Series (DBWE). Each volume title will be listed individually.

Description: This field identifies the titles currently available in the database. For example, in Twentieth Century Religious Thought, Volume I: Christianity, includes the complete 17-volume German edition of Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke (DBW) and 15 volumes of the English edition of the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works Series (DBWE) (final volumes will be added in 2014). Each volume title will be listed individually.

How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword searches to a specific series.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of the word "dogmatics" in Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works.

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter the word "dogmatics" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and Paste "Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works" from the terms list next to the series field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences of the keyword in this series.

Description: This field identifies the titles related to a particular author.

How to use this field: Use this field to search an author.

Description: This field identifies the titles related to a particular editor/translator.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword search to the editor/translator.

Practical Example:
Find all references to Bonhoeffer in documents edited by Albrecht Schönherr.

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Bonhoeffer" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Enter "Albrecht Schönherr" into the Editor/Translator field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all references to Bonhoeffer in documents edited or translated by Albrecht Schönherr.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular archive.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to the archive.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "salvation".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "salvation" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and paste "U.S. Library of Congress. Manuscript Division" from the terms list next to the Archive field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to the U.S. Library of Congress. Manuscript Division archive.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular archival collection.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to the collection.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "salvation".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "salvation" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and paste "Reinhold Niebuhr Papers" from the terms list next to the Archival Collections field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to the Reinhold Niebuhr Papers archival collection.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular subject.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a subject.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Final Judgment".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Final Judgment" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and paste "Eschatology/Last Things" from the terms list next to the Subject field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to the subject of Eschatology/Last Things.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular publisher.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a publisher.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Psalms".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Psalms" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and paste "Gütersloher Verlagshause" from the terms list next to the Publisher field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to the publisher Gütersloher Verlagshause.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular language of edition.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a language of edition.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Gespräche".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Gespräche" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Select and paste "German" from the terms list next to the Language of Edition field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to German editions.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular publication year.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a publication year.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Prayer".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Prayer" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Insert "1985" next to the Publication Year field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to 1985.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular date written.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a publication year.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Niebuhr".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Niebuhr" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Insert "1955" next to the Date Written field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in documents related to Niebuhr.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular publication type.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a publication type.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Prayer".

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Prayer" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Insert "Monograph" next to the Publication Type field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in monograph documents.

 

As indicated in the field descriptions and sample searches given above, Twentieth Century Religious Thought gives users the option to enter information into multiple fields in order to frame sophisticated and targeted search queries. The sample search given here shows how you can combine a keyword search with multiple metadata fields.


Practical Example:
Find all instances where variations of the keyword "Sexagesima.*" occur in German-language editions of works by Karl Barth

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter keyword "Sexagesima.*" in the Search Terms field.
  • Click on the Show search options button.
  • Insert "Barth" into the Author field; then insert "German" into the Language of Edition field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list showing instances of the keyword when it occurs in Barth's German-language works.

 

The option to limit person search results enables users to locate specific words or phrases that occur in the texts that are written by authors with certain affiliations. The term(s) to be searched in selected documents is entered into one of the following search form boxes:

  • Religious Affiliation
  • Institutional Affiliation
  • School of Thought
  • Nationality

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular Religious Affiliation.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a particular Religious Affiliation.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Enlightenment" from Lutheran writers.

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Enlightenment" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Expand the Limit By Person Details section of Advanced Search.
  • Insert "Lutheran" next to the Religious Affiliation field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in writers with an affiliation with the Lutheran church.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular Institutional Affiliation.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a particular Institutional Affiliation.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Revelation" in documents produced by writers associated with Yale University.

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Revelation" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Expand the Limit By Person Details section of Advanced Search.
  • Insert "Yale University" next to the Institutional Affiliation field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in writers with an affiliation with Yale University.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular School of Thought.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a particular School of Thought.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Quaker" in documents produced by writers associated with Feminist Theology.

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Quaker" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Expand the Limit By Person Details section of Advanced Search.
  • Insert "Feminist Theology" next to the School of Thought field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in writers with an affiliation with Yale University.

Description:
This field allows the user to locate all documents related to a particular nationality.

How to use this field:
Use this field to limit keyword searches to a particular nationality.

Practical Example:
Find all instances of the keyword "Suffering" in documents produced by writers from Peru

  • Go to the Advanced Search page.
  • Enter "Suffering" into the Keyword or Phrase box.
  • Expand the Limit By Person Details section of Advanced Search.
  • Insert "Peru" next to the Nationality field.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all instances of the keyword as it occurs in writers from Peru.

After executing a keyword search or a bibliographic search, Browse by Facet options appear to the right of the search report. Clicking on any of the facet values will display the absolute frequency of search results for that metadata value. Additionally, clicking on Relative Frequency will display the relative frequency of results per 10,000 for that metadata value. The number of raw occurrences is given in relation to total word occurrences, then the rate is displayed. For example, 64 actual occurrences in 136673 words having a relative frequency of 4.68 means that a total of 64 occurrences of the term have been found at a frequency rate of 4.68 occurrences per 10,000 words for a given document title or year/span of years.

Collocation can be used in the following way: search for a particular word or pattern like “mysterious” or “myst.*” to display collocated terms within the same sentence. A collocation search for “God” will display the top 100 collocates for that search term within the same sentence. The collocation search can be executed with the most frequent terms filtered out or left in (see "Most frequent terms" and "No filtering" options at the bottom of the search form). A word cloud displays on the right side of the screen. Larger-sized collocates reflect higher frequencies. Clicking on any term in the word cloud will show search results for both terms (search term and collocate) in a concordance report.

Users may elect to sort full-text search results alphabetically by title or chronologically by year of composition/publication. To use this feature, enter your desired term(s) in the Keyword or Phrase box, then scroll to the bottom of the screen and use the Sort results by dropdown. The available sort options here vary by product.

At the head of any results set one finds the bibliographic criteria for the search, the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered, and the total number of occurrences of the search term(s) in the database. The number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report if PhiloLogic has not detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences on the screen.

Concordance Display is the default results format option. In this format each keyword is highlighted in red, located contextually within the portion of the passage in which it is found. Above the contextual representation of the keyword(s), one finds a short citation consisting of the author's name and a shortened version of the title of the document from which the excerpted passage has been drawn. This citation is followed by links to various levels within the document (page, paragraph, section, and subsection). Clicking on any of these links takes one to the specified level, where one will find the keyword(s), still highlighted, in the extended context of the paragraph, page, or section. Consider the example below, generated from a search for the keyword "Geist":


Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 1906-1945, Letters and Papers from Prison   PART 1: The Interrogation Period April—July 1943      >9. To Karl and Paula Bonhoeffer      > [ page 67 ]
If the two of them understand this—and I believe they already understand it well—then I can foresee only great happiness in this marriage, and I am already looking forward to being included in their domestic joys someday. They should read together Geld und Geist, by Jeremias Gotthelf, soon. It is better than any wedding toast I could give them. As a wedding gift I would like to give them the spinet, which is already half theirs anyway. Also, as I already told Ursel, I would like to make my contribution, whatever i


The bibliographic display contains links to the whole text through clicking the title, the section of text where the result can be found, and the page on which the result can be found. Clicking the "More" button displays more result context.

Note:
Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraphs in some documents are very lengthy.

The default is to display the first 25 results. In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences of a keyword, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of 100. One may also change the number of displayed results by selecting a different number at the bottom of the search options screen, by Results per page.

Key Word in Context Display is a good format for scanning or printing large result sets since it limits the text displayed to a single line of text. Each occurrence is represented by an abbreviated title citation with a link to the page in the document where the term occurs. Search results can be sorted by several different options available in the dropdowns.